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Glossary

Glossary

There are special industry jargon, slang, acronyms, and other puzzling things posted in this Blog.  To help the newbies, we now have a Glossary.  If something is missing, please let me know so it can be added.

  1. Abattoir   (a.k.a. Slaughter plant) is where animals are killed, eviscerated, and inspected by government (Federal or Provincial).  In some abattoirs, the meat also has one or more of the following additional processes done:  aged, refrigerated, frozen, cut and wrapped, marinated, weighed, ground, sausages, smoked, cured, etc.  The number of abattoirs in Ontario decreased from 267 in 1998 to 152 in 2010; mainly due to the excessive regulations implemented in 2005, based loosely (and sometimes contrary to) the Meat Report ("Farm to Fork") of Justice Haines where he investigated the scandal ridden Ontario meat system.  Chicken needs an abattoir under Provincial and Federal law, however most abattoirs are not equipped (and are not approved) to process poultry; further complicating the situation.

  2. AOCP  (Association of Ontario Chicken Processors) is an voluntary industry trade association organization that represents 11 chicken processors in matters related to regulated marketing and in other matters of common interest to the members.  In Mar. 2011, AOCP's 11 members had 95% market share of the Ontario chicken processing industry.  They are very active in protecting their virtual monopoly in Ontario, and the profits it brings to AOCP members.  The remaining 5% market share is held by OIMP.  AOCP's offices are located in Guelph ON.

  3. Artisanal Chicken:      A licensing program started by Chicken Farmers of Ontario ("CFO") in Dec. 2015 where an applicant is licensed to produce between 600 to 3,000 meat chickens per year, using the same or similar regulations and mandatory standards as imposed on Quota-based farmers.  Artisanal Chicken farmers are required to renew heir license annually, and be on-farm inspected annually.  CFO licenses Artisanal chicken farmers, but contrary to any sense of democract, refuses Artisanal Chicken Farmers the right to attend CFO meetings, vote in CFO elections, or hold any CFO office.

  4. Big Ag. (a.k.a. Big Agriculture) is one or more of the multi-national agriculture corporations.  Six corporations (Monsanto, DuPont, Dow, Syngenta, Bayer and BASF) control 75% of the world pesticides market.  CAFO factory farms are often used, which now account for 72 percent of poultry production, 43 percent of egg production, and 55 percent of pork production worldwide.  Only four corporations (ADM, Bunge, Cargill and Dreyfus) control more than 75% of the global grain trade. They overwhelmingly push commodity crops like corn and soy on local farmers at the expense of native crops. New cultivars are often promoted due to the higher profit potential, even though the are sometimes significantly inferior for the food nutrient contents, the impact on farm soils, or the overall environment.

  5. Big Food is one or more multi-national food producers or processors who tend to prey on consumers, rather than serving them.  Some examples for North America are PepsiCo, Tyson Foods, JBS USA, Coca-Cola, Anheuser-Busch, ConAgra, Kraft, Smithfield Foods, General Mills, Kellogg's, Mars Inc., Dean Foods, etc..  World-wide examples are Associated British Foods PLC, Groupe Danone, Mondelez, NestlĂ©, Unilever Group, Fonterra, etc. They have often been associated with predatory trade practices to gain market share over small, local producers.  For those that deal in processed foods, they have often formulated their processed foods for low cost, maximum profit, and maximum addiction by consumers, with little regard for the nutritional, health, or environmental impacts.  Addiction to their brands is often achieved by Bliss Point research (ie. adjusting recipes for fat, sugar, salt, and flavorings to maximize desire to consume), reinforcing habits by saturation marketing, and similar techniques.

  6. Broiler: A chicken that is raised for its meat.  In large chicken growing factories, it is sent to slaughter at a weight of 0.9 to 3.5 kg., with the ideal weight of 1.0 kg. for which a premium price is paid.  This weight is usually achieved at an age of 6 weeks.  The birds are genetically selected to have a rapid growth rate and enlarged breast meat.  Broilers are younger, smaller versions of Roasters.
    In 1950, it took 84 days to produce a 5-pound chicken, whereas today it takes just 45 days; achieved through optimizing genetics, feed, and environment (Humane Society of United States, 2006), without regard for the consequences in the nutrition of the resulting meat, nor the animal welfare.

  7. CAFO: An acronym for "Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation" which is defined as an industrialized agricultural process that concentrates large numbers of animals in relatively small and confined places, using mechanical systems to feed, water, house, and handle the animals (as opposed to naturally occurring systems in nature).  The animals usually have a poor to unacceptable quality of life, and require significant doses of antibiotics, drugs, and other chemicals to keep them alive and growing in these poor conditions.  When animals are transferred from a natural setting to CAFO factory, they tend to go through a Frankenstein-like transformation in their health, metabolism, biome, meat quality, nutrition, and other important aspects.  CAFO's are designed to maximize profits, at the expense of all other considerations.

  8. CDC (Canadian Dairy Commission)   This is the Federal Government's regulator of the dairy sector for Supply Management, Canada-wide milk quota, and marketing of the various dairy products.  Here is CDC's Annual Report 2013  This organization is comparable to FPCC (which regulates all Supply Management Agencies other than dairy).  As of Dec. 31, 2013 there are 12,529 dairy farms operating under SM.  In 1966, the Canadian Dairy Commission was created and, in the early 1970s, dairy became the first commodity in Canada to operate a national supply management system.

  9. Cellular Farming is defined as a small, local farmer who supplies their immediate community or neighbourhood for 1 or more foods (eg. chicken, eggs, vegetables, etc.) for all or part of their customer's annual or seasonal consumption.  This could be a small flock poultry farmer, beef farmer, vegetable or market gardener, etc.  They could do this on a CSA (Community Supported Agriculture), roadside stand, farm gate sales, Farmer's Market, custom contract growing, spot market (ie. telephone call "Do you have some carrots for sale? ... Yes? That's great, I'll be right over...") or similar methods. Contrast with  "Local Food".
     
  10. Cellular Food is defined as food produced by Cellular Farming.

  11. CFC: Chicken Farmers of Canada, the Canada-wide boss for running the chicken supply management system in Canada since 1978.  CFC is supposed to determine the Canada-wide demand for chicken, then assign permitted production quotas to all provinces.  CFC also lobbies all governments for continued protection of their artificially created monopoly, and getting additional benefits for its members. CFC is the Canada-wide Don of the #ChickenMafia  FPCC is supposed to monitor and supervise the CFC.  There is approximately 2,700 commercial, quota-based factory chicken growers in Canada, and about 60,000 quota-exempt small flock chicken farmers.  Canadian chicken farms are an endangered species, as their numbers have dropped 88% in the last 45 years; yet CFC claims to be the saviour of family chicken farms in Canada. 

  12. CFIA (Canadian Food Inspection Agency): This Canada-wide Agency of the Federal Government is in charge of food safety, zoonotic diseases (ie. diseases originating or spread by animals), invasive species of plants and animals, plant pests, and environmental biodiversity.  CFIA inspects the food processing facilities and the food produced that is exported, or shipped inter-provincially.

  13. CFO: Chicken Farmers of Ontario, the Ontario boss of chicken supply management in Ontario since 1965.  They set the minimum legal price for live chicken sold at the farm gate, determine who and how chicken can be bought, sold, shipped, advertised, etc.; the Ontario Don of the #ChickenMafia  The OFPMC and CFC are both supposed to monitor and supervise the CFO.  As of Nov. 8, 2011 there were 1,114 quota-based factory chicken farmers in Ontario, and about 16,000 quota-exempt small flock chicken farmers registered with CFO (plus ???? urban, backyard, below the radar, non-commercial chicken flocks).

  14. CHEP (Canadian Hatching Egg Producers) is a member of the SM-5, and manages the quota, marketing, and producing of eggs and chicks used for building broiler flocks (ie. eggs not for eating by consumers).  There are about 245 broiler hatching egg producers in Canada.  Annual Report 2012

  15. Chick: A young chicken, either male or female, still with down and not yet developed its adult feathers.

  16. Chicken Mafia ( see also #ChickenMafia ): All those individuals and organizations that directly or indirectly receive protection, authority, special privileges, or non-free market benefits from the monopolistic supply management system for chicken.  Examples of #ChickenMafia members would be CFC, CFO, chicken processors, chicken feed mill and feed producers, chicken producers, chicken distributors, etc.

    The Chicken Mafia is a tightly knit organization of individuals who individually and/or as a group are engaged in pathological and narcissistic opportunism for the growing, processing, distribution, and marketing of chicken in Canada.  With an assumption of arrogance and entitlement, their selfish goals are shamelessly achieved through secrecy, illegal or immoral means, regulatory capture, government lobbying, graft, intimidation, coercion, exploitation, distortion, illusion, distraction, exaggeration, projection, retribution, tyranny, envy, disrespect or oppression of others; especially those with competing interests.

    The Canadian #ChickenMafia charges 50% to 300% more for chicken than the same chicken available in the USA.  As of Dec. 31, 2013 there are 2,700 chicken factory farms operating under Canada's SM.

  17. DFC (Dairy Farmers of Canada) One of the SM-5, there are 11,280 dairy farms operating in Canada as of 2016.  When Supply Management ("SM") was created in Jan 1972, there were 113,008 dairy farms.  During SM's reign, 90% of Canadian dairy farms have disappeared.  If SM was designed and intended to protect Canadian farms, it has failed miserably.  Due to the government created monopolies for DFC, they are able to charge Canadians between 38% to 300% more for the various dairy products (fluid milk, cheese, butter, etc.).  Here is their Feb 2014 DFC Update

  18. DFO (Dairy Farmers of Ontario)   One of the SM-5, there are 3,980 dairy farms operating in Ontario as of 2013.  Due to the government created monopolies for DFO, they are able to charge Canadians between 38% to 300% more for the various dairy products (fluid milk, cheese, butter, etc.).  Here is their 2013 Annual Report

  19. EFC (Egg Farmers of Canada):  the Canada-wide boss for running the egg supply management system in Canada.  There are just over 1,000 egg farms in Canada. EFC is supposed to determine the Canada-wide demand for eggs, then assigns permitted production quotas to all provinces.  EFC also lobbies all governments for continued protection of their artificially created monopoly, and getting additional benefits for its members.  EFC is the Canada-wide Don of the #EggMafia  FPCC is supposed to monitor and supervise the CFC.

  20. EFO: Egg Farmers of Ontario, the Ontario boss of egg supply management in Ontario.  They set the minimum legal price for eggs sold at the farm gate, determine who and how eggs can be bought, sold, shipped, advertised, etc.; the Ontario Don of the #EggMafia  The OFPMC and EFC are both supposed to monitor and supervise the EFO.  As of Dec. 31, 2013 there are 1,000 egg producers operating under SM

  21. Egg Mafia ( see also #EggMafia ): All those individuals and organizations that directly or indirectly receive protection, authority, special privileges, or non-free market benefits from the monopolistic supply management system for chicken eggs.  The #EggMafia receive delegated powers from the provincial and federal governments, as well a monopoly for eggs in Canada.  Examples of #EggMafia members would be EFC, EFO, egg graders, chicken feed mill and feed producers, egg distributors, etc.

    The Egg Mafia is a tightly knit organization of individuals who individually and/or as a group are engaged in pathological and narcissistic opportunism for the growing, processing, distribution, and marketing of food eggs in Canada.  With an assumption of arrogance and entitlement, their selfish goals are shamelessly achieved through secrecy, illegal or immoral means, regulatory capture, government lobbying, graft, intimidation, coercion, exploitation, distortion, illusion, distraction, exaggeration, projection, retribution, tyranny, envy, disrespect or oppression of all others; especially those with competing interests.

    As of 2012, the typical Canadian egg farm had as few as 11, 651 hens (AB average) to 49,123 (NL average), with a Canada-wide average of 20,241 layers. There are 7 quota-bearing commercial egg farmers in NL (lowest #), to as high as 324 egg farms in ON (highest #), and a Canada-wide total of 1,016 egg farms.  For 2013, EFC authorized quota for the production of 585,326,822 dozens of eggs.  As of Dec. 31, 2013 there are 1,000 egg producers operating under SM.

    Burnbrae Farms Ltd. and L.H. Gray account for more than 90 per cent market share in Ontario.  They are the "gorillas in the chicken coop", and some say these two egg producers and graders call all the shots at the Egg Marketing Board.

    In egg farming’s supply managed system, a unit of quota equals one bird, so, for example, a person with 600 units of quota has 600 birds. Hens lay eggs on average for 51 weeks and produce about 25.5 dozen eggs each during their lifetime.  While a layer has a life expectency of more than a decade, and can produce eggs for 3 years or more, regulation require the slaughter and replacement of layers after just 51 weeks.  This keep their Supply Management brothers, the hatcheries and pullet growers, in business.  Canadians pick up the tab for this forced obsolesence.

    The current total levy in Ontario is 31.25 cents per dozen, paid to EFO (Feb 2015).  The average flock size in Ontario is 25,000 birds. 

    The Canadian #EggMafia charges about 52.6% more for eggs in Canada, as compared to the same eggs in the USA.

  22. FPCC: Farm Products Council of Canada.  Appointed by the Federal Government, they are supposed to supervise all farm product marketing boards, including chicken (eg. CFC), turkey, and egg (eg. EFC), but not dairy.  They delegate federal government  authority to Canada-wide marketing boards (eg. CFC and EFC), approve all their actions, and hear complaints filed against them.  FPCC as a regulatory organization is comparable to the Canadian Dairy Commission ("CDC") for the dairy side of SM-5.

  23. Hatchery:  Broiler breeder hens start to lay eggs at about 26 weeks of age, and continue to do so for about 35 weeks.  At the end of their laying season, the broiler breeder hens will be declared to be "Spent Hens", and disposed of, replaced by a new younger batch of broiler breeder hens.  The eggs are incubated for about 21 days, hatch, and then sent to chicken farmers who raise the day-old chicks to produce Broilers and Roaster chickens.  As of Dec. 31, 2013 there are 245 hatcheries operating under SM.

  24. OFPMC: Ontario Farm Products Marketing Commission   Appointed by the Ontario Government, they are supposed to supervise all farm product marketing boards in Ontario, including chicken (eg. CFO) and egg (eg. EFO).  They delegate provincial government authority to Ontario's marketing boards, approve all their actions, and hear complaints filed against them.  Each Province in Canada has a similar organization.

  25. Layer:  A chicken raised to lay eggs.  A chicken will start laying eggs around 9 weeks old, and hit full production around 17 weeks old, and will continue at maximum production for about its first year of life.  When egg production starts to drop off, it is re-classified as a "Spent Hen" and disposed off, being replaced by a new, young hen at full egg laying productivity.  As of Dec. 31, 2013 there are 1,000 egg producers operating under SM.

  26. Liquid Eggs:  Eggs that have been processed by an egg breaking factory, then homogenized, pasteurized, and packaged.  Liquid eggs are usually eggs that had been downgraded due to dirty, cracked, mis-shaped shells; or excess eggs, or old eggs that were unable to be sold as fresh table eggs.  Bakeries, processed food manufacturers, and similar food manufacturing organizations prefer to use liquid eggs for their lower cost and more convenient packaging (ie. already cracked opened & removed from the shell).
  27. "Local Food" is defined (by CFIA and Ontario, and many other jurisdictions) as food produced anywhere within the same Province, or across a Provincial border by no more than 50 km.  Local Food used to be defined as grown within 50 miles of where it is eaten, but this was inconvenient, and placed Big Ag. and Big Food at a competitive disadvantage to local producers, therefore the lobbyists of the Big Food/Big Ag. overlords had the definition changed so they had the advantage over local producers.  Contrast this definition with Cellular Food
  28. OIMP (Ontario Independent Meat Processors) is a voluntary trade association of abattoirs and other meat processors in Ontario, with their offices in Guelph ON.  As of Mar. 2011, OIMP members were estimated to have 5% market share of the Ontario meat processing business.  AOCP has the other 95%.

  29. Pullet:  A young female chicken, less than a year old.

  30. Quota:   A license to produce a defined amount of a Supply Management commodity (eg. chicken, turkey, eggs, milk)  For chicken a unit of quota was originally defined as 1 sq. ft. of barn production space between 1964 and 1965.  Today, a unit of quota translates to about 1.86 kg of live chicken, and a chicken quota holder is entitled to produce a unit of quota as many times in a year as the bird's growth cycle will permit; usually every 8 to 12 weeks.  Chicken quota is sold privately, often in secret, but the Nov. 2011 price was typically $100 to $105 per unit of quota.  CFO usually sets the minimum quota holding to be 14,000 units, so that is an investment from $1.4 to $1.47 million just for quota. In some specialty markets quota farmers are permitted to operate with just 500 units of quota.   See Tribunal hearing for more info.  As of Dec. 31, 2013 there are 12,529 dairy, 2,700 chicken, 1,000 egg, 531 turkey, and 245 hatcheries operating under SM quota systems.

  31. Roaster: A chicken that is raised for its meat which is more than 2.5 kg in weight.  In large chicken growing factories, it is sent to slaughter at a weight around 3 kg.  This weight is usually achieved at an age of 7 weeks.  The birds are genetically selected to have a rapid growth rate and enlarged breast meat. Roasters are a larger, older version of Broiler chickens.  Roasters were added to CFO's regulatory framework in 1972 with issuance of free quota to all farmers who qualified during 1971 to 1972.
  32. Small Flock:   The raising of sustainable, locally produced & locally consumed poultry, for the production of breeding stock, nutritious meat, and/or eggs; where the animals enjoy respect, dignity, and optimum growing & lifestyle conditions, as close to natural as feasible. The 2,800 or so quota-based factory chicken farmers in Canada (plus the hatcheries) have captured the government regulations, and they define it solely by the numbers, different for each Province.  In Ontario, small flock used to be less than 300 meat birds, or 100 layers.  Now that the Artisanal Chicken program has been launched by Chicken Farmers of Ontario ("CFO"), Small Flock is now defined as 3,000 or less meat birds, rather than the previous limit of 300 birds. Small Flock is the same as "Non-Quota" for the flock size, but Small Flock has additional expectations beyond mere flock size.  SFPFC believes it isn't just the numbers, it's mainly the underlying philosophy and methods used.

  33. SFPFC: Small Flock Poultry Farmers of Canada  is a not-for-profit Canada-wide organization dedicated to communicate, discuss, and advocate for the civil rights and important role that small flock poultry farmers (ie. "Small Flockers") can play (and should play) in Canadian Society.  Small Flockers outnumber the #ChickenMafia by 13:1, but Small Flockers are oppressed by unjust laws implemented by Canada's governments, #ChickenMafia and the #EggMafia,  SFPFC is the author of this Blog.  See SFPFC's Mission, Vision, & Philosophies

  34. Spent Fowl (a.k.a. spend hens, stewing hen, boiling fowl, pot roasting hen, mature chicken, or old rooster): Spent fowl are usually female chickens that has been laying eggs (either for table eggs, or hatching eggs) for over a year.  Spent laying hens for table eggs generally have little more than skin and bones left as laying an egg every 28 hours takes a lot out of them (always on the verge of starvation no matter how much they eat), and usually have tough, chewy, stringy meat that has a strong taste.  Spent laying hens for hatching eggs are usually larger, with more muscle, but are also tough, chewy, and stringy meat that is off-flavour.  Spent chicken was traditionally used for making chicken soup; too tough and scrawny to do roast chicken. More recently, Campbell Soup will no longer use spent fowl as it is not palatable.  After a year-long career laying eggs, that chicken is then retired to the "chicken soup department" and replaced with a fresh 12 week old bird who takes her place.  Spent chickens aren't worth much.  Traditionally it cost more to catch and truck them away than what they could be sold for.  Therefore many factory chicken farmers didn't bother trying to sell their spent chickens, they just send the live spent chickens into a large grinder that instantly turns them into ground up compost, then spread it as fertilizer, or landfilled at an approved solid waste dump.

    Spent fowl can be imported to Canada tariff-free (Cdn. Tariffs 0105.92.10, 0105.93.10, 0207.11.10, 0207.12.10, 0207.13.10, 0207.14.10, 1601.00.23, 1602.32.11, and 1602.32.92) , and is sometimes used as a ploy to get cheap US chicken into Canada, bypassing the ~280% duty imposed to protect the SM5's #ChickenMafia's monopoly.

  35. SM-5:  Five Canada-wide organizations representing producers of commodities under supply
    management: Dairy Farmers of Canada (1934), Canadian Egg Marketing Agency (1972), Canadian Turkey Marketing Agency (1973), Chicken Farmers of Canada (1978), and Canadian Broiler Hatching Egg Marketing Agency (1986).  As of Dec. 31, 2013 there are 12,529 dairy, 2,700 chicken, 1,000 egg, 531 turkey, and 245 hatcheries operating under SM, for a grand total of 17,005 farms operating under SM; which is about 8% of all farmers in Canada.

  36. Supply Management:  (also known as "SM") An intricate web of interlocking laws and regulations by both the Federal Government and all provincial governments whereby 5 organizations have been given an artificial monopoly in their sector (broiler hatching eggs, chickens, eggs, dairy, turkey, & tobacco), with exclusive rights to buy, sell, market, advertise, ship, store, and export their respective commodity.  There are approximately 17,000 SM farmers (ie. just 0.05% of all Canadians, and less than 8% of all farmers) who can enjoy higher profits and no competition through their SM monopoly.  As in most monopolies, the cartel becomes more and more arrogant, rent-seeking, oppressive, and tyrannical; forgetting that they are supposed to be working for the greater good of the public, not to line their own pockets.  Due to inadequate safeguards in the laws so as to protect the public, and inadequate supervision of the monopolists, this has resulted in Canadians paying up to 300% more for the same product available elsewhere.  See the SM-5, #ChickenMafia  and #EggMafia.  Since most of SM is funded by consumer price gouging, it is consumers who fund the inefficient and ineffective SM system.  Since corporations for the most part, don't buy SM consumer goods (eg. eggs, dairy, chicken, turkey), the existence and effectiveness of SM is a moot point for most corporations.  Since SM is a huge bureaucratic corporation, it tends to flock together with other huge corporations, supporting each other, and are both against the interests of consumers.

    Farm Product Council Of Canada describes its creation as follows:
       ...the federal government, at the request of egg producers across Canada and the Canadian Federation of Agriculture, introduced Bill C-197 in March 1970.  This Bill would permit a national marketing agency to, amongst other powers, restrict production and establish an allocation system of production quota for each province.  Although Bill C-197 died on the order papers early in 1970 due to significant opposition, it was reintroduced in October 1970 as Bill C-176, the precursor to the FPMAA, later amended to the Farm Products Agencies Act in 1993.

    Following two all-night sessions and a last-minute amendment, the House of Commons consented to Bill C-176 on December 31, 1971, at 6:40 a.m.

    Royal assent was given to the FPMAA on January 12, 1972.  The FPAA established the National Farm Products Marketing Council (NFPMC), which was changed to the Farm Products Council of Canada (FPCC) in 2009.  It [FPCC] began its operations on April 1, 1972, and authorized the establishment of national marketing agencies for farm products.

  37. Table Eggs:  Raw eggs in the shell that are sold to consumers (eg. families, restaurants, food service organizations, etc.)
  38. Tariff:   Goods and services imported into a country are subject to import tariffs and excise taxes.  Canada and most other countries have signed trade treaties where the import tariffs and excise taxes are reduced or totally eliminated.  To facilitate international trade, tariff codes and descriptions have been standardized amongst many different countries (eg. what is a "chick", versus a "pullet", versus a "hen", versus a "chicken", a "Table egg" versus a "Hatching egg", etc.)  Each one of these commodities has a different tariff code, and can have a different tax rate depending on the quantity being imported, the originating country, and other factors.  Canada's tariff are passed by Canada's Parliament, as recommended by Dept. of Industry & Trade, then administered by Canadian Border Services Agency ("CBSA").  As an example, Canada's Tariff Codes describes “Spent fowl”, also referred to as "stewing hens", "boiling fowls", "pot roasting hens", "mature chickens", or "old roosters" (see tariff items 0105.92.10, 0105.93.10, 0207.11.10, 0207.12.10, 0207.13.10, 0207.14.10, 1601.00.23, 1602.32.11, and 1602.32.92).

  39. TRQ (Tariff Rate Quota): Under the various trade agreements and treaties between Canada and its trading partners, Canada must all a certain amount of foreign goods to be imported into Canada at favorable tariff rates.  After that initial amount has been exceeded, there is usually a huge jump in the tariff rate, thereby stopping or severely discouraging further imports.

    For example, under TRQ foreign chicken can enter Canada at an import tariff cost of 0% (NAFTA) or 5% (WTO). TRQ quantities are limited to just 7.5% of the total kg consumed in Canada during the previous calendar year. After that miniscule market access is exceeded, importer must pay a 285% import tariff cost.

    Similar TRQ's are in place for eggs, pullets, turkeys, dairy products (eg. butter, fluid milk, milk protein, cheese, etc.), and other commodities.

  40. TFC (Turkey Farmers of Canada) is a member of the SM-5, formed in 1974, and is the Supply Management Agency for all of Canada on the management and regulation of the turkey growers.  There are 531 turkey farms in Canada as of Jan. 2014.  TFC is regulated and supervised by FPCC.  TFC's Annual Report 2012   Canadian Turkey Statistics 1974 - 2012

  41. TFO (Turkey Farmers of Ontario) is a member of the SM-5, and regulates the prices and supply of turkeys for Ontario.  There are 185 quota-based turkey farms in Ontario.  TFO is supposed to be supervised and monitored by TFC, FPCC, and OFPMC.  As of Dec. 31, 2013 there are 531 turkey farms operating under SM.
  42. Tobacco (a.k.a. Ontario Flue-Cured Tobacco Growers Marketing Board "OFCTGMB's") is a declining, and soon to be kaput member of Supply Management member.  OFCTGMB was created in 1957 to replace the troublesome Tobacco Growers Marketing Association.  In 1960, the Board stopped issuing quota so as to keep prices from falling.  In 1974, the quota was separated from the specific farmland it had previously been linked to, becoming Basic Production Quota.  In 1978, quota was changed from acreage to poundage of tobacco, and farmers could buy, sell, or rent their quota.  In 2009, tobacco quota was abolished, replaced by a tobacco growing license if the farmer could find someone to buy their tobacco.  Also in 1978 under tobacco abatement, most tobacco farmers have taken a government buy-out to stop growing tobacco.  In a 2007 study by Univ. of Guelph and George Morris Centre it was shown that 50% of the tobacco crop in Ontario is illegally sold by farmers on the black market, and/or to organized crime.  In July 2015, OFPMC revoked the majority of the OFCTGMB's marketing authorities under SM, and the Ministry of Finance has assumed the responsibility for licensing tobacco production in Ontario.  Tobacco seems to be in the lead (ie. the worst of corruption & incompetence) on the SM corruption continuum from which all of SM suffers.

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